environmental scientific research & coverage 12 (2009) 855вЂ“869
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Climate and air quality-driven scenarios of ozone and aerosol precursor abatement Kristin Rypdal a, Nathan Rebord a, 5., Terje Berntsen a, Hilde Fagerli w, Zbigniew Klimont c, Torben K. Mideksa a, Jan S. Fuglestvedt a a
CICERO, P. O. Container 1129 Blindern, N-0318 Oslo, Norway achieved. no, G. O. Box 43 Blindern, N-0313 Oslo, Norway c International Company for Used Systems Evaluation (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria b
Published on line 16 September 2009 Keywords: Air flow pollutants Radiative forcing Minimization Cost-effectiveness
In addition to causing household and local environmental effects, many air flow pollutants bring about radiative pushing (RF) from the climate program. However , local climate effects are generally not considered once cost-effective abatement targets for anyone pollutants are established, nor are they a part of current intercontinental climate contracts. We construct air pollution mollification scenarios in 2030 which usually target cost-effective reductions in RF in the EU, USA, and China and tiawan and compare these to abatement situations which instead target local ozone results and particulate matter concentrations. Our research covers exhausts of PM HOURS (п¬Ѓne, dark-colored carbon and organic carbon), SO2, NOx, CH4, VOCs, and COMPANY. We п¬Ѓnd that the result synergies will be strong for PM/BC, VOC, CO and CH4. When an quality of air strategy geared towards reducing ozone will also reduce RF, this will likely not be the case for a strategy concentrating on particulate subject. Abatement in China dominates RF reduction, but you will find cheap mollification options available too in the EUROPEAN UNION and USA. The justiп¬Ѓcation for intercontinental cooperation about air quality concerns is underlined when the co-beneп¬Ѓts of decreased RF are considered. Some types, most importantly SO2, contribute a negative forcing in climate. All of us suggest that given current expertise, NOx and SO2 should be ignored in RF-targeted mollification policies. # 2009 Elsevier Ltd. Every rights set aside.
Air contaminants contribute to numerous environmental and human medical problems. Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), deadly carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane volatile organic and natural compounds (NMVOC) and methane (CH4) type ozone inside the presence of sunlight (Crutzen, 1987; IPCC, 2007). This kind of ozone contributes not only to premature deaths and loss of harvest production (WHO, 2004), although also to global warming (e. g. Berntsen et al., 1997; IPCC, 2007). Sulphur dioxide (SO2), NOx and ammonia (NH3) cause acidiп¬Ѓcation and euthrophication of all-natural ecosystems and moreover play a role inside the
formation of secondary particulate matter (PM) which, along with main PM have got adverse effects upon health (Holland et ing., 2005). Furthermore, particulate matter emissions, speciп¬Ѓcally black carbon (BC) and organic co2 (OC), affect the radiative making balance, correspondingly, contributing to the heating and cooling of the atmosphere (Forster et al., 2007). Up to now abatement of these species have been driven by simply air quality and ecosystems safeguard targets. Exhausts reductions of SO2, NOx, NMVOC and NH3 had been addressed internationally in the Gothenburg protocol of the Convention upon Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (UNECE, 1999) plus the EU NEC Directive (EC, 2001). These regulations set emission
2. Corresponding creator. Tel.: +47 22858750; fax: +47 22858751. E-mail addresses: n. a. [email protected] uio. no (N. Rive). 1462-9011/$ вЂ“ observe front matter # 2009 Elsevier Limited. All legal rights reserved. doi: 10. 1016/j. envsci. 2009. 08. 002
environmental science & policy doze (2009) 855вЂ“869
targets for 2010 and 2020, respectively, to minimize the effects of acidiп¬Ѓcation, eutrophication and ground-level ozone. Recently, the EU Thematic Strategy upon Air Pollution (EC, 2005) also included the health associated with primary and secondary EVENING and suggested further reductions of PM and its precursors that will...
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